It is the intent of the University to encourage the development and offering of interprofessional courses. Interprofessional courses aim to prepare health professionals to be collaboration-ready to engage with people, families, and communities to support the transforming health environment. Courses constructed with this goal in mind are open to students from all colleges. They present opportunities for dialogue and collaboration that focus on effective professional performance in an ever-evolving health care environment. Courses cover a spectrum of topics and a variety of formats including experiential, team-based, online, and hybrid. Topics include health delivery models, prevention, population health, health humanities, team science, and quality of health care and address clinical, community (both urban and rural), and research settings.
ETH*705. Research Ethics: Key Concepts. The course provides deep analysis of ethical issues in such areas as data management, international research, research ethics consultation, and relations between law and research ethics. It is an extension of the introductory materials covered in MCR 750.
ETH*738. Seminars in Research Ethics. This online seminar series expands the range of educational opportunities for learners who are interested in clinical and translational research ethics (CTRE). It comprises hour-long asynchronous seminars each week with leaders from MUSC research administration, clinical/translational investigators, and invited guests from other institutions, each of whom focuses on the relation of their offices and activities to CTRE. Each seminar will be followed by small group discussions online. This course is part of the Clincal and Translational Research Ethics (CTRE) Fellowship Program; however Fellowship enrollment is not required. This course is available entirely online. 1 s.h.
ETH*750. Ethical Issues in Clin. Emphasis will be placed on the ethical issues associated with clinical research and practice. The class will focus on review of the competencies involved in the conduct of ethically responsible research. The process of assesing ethical issues in research and study will be described.The ethical considerations in study design and implementation, data management, data analysis, data interpretation and results presentation and publication will be described. As future educators, the students will be presented with the honor council process, assessment process for unethical classroom and study behavior, and the process for behavior modification and remediation. Ethical considerations in collaborative research will be presented. The course will consider evolving ethical issues in clinical research including human subjects and conflict of interest. The course will include a class participation system and will be available online. 1 s.h.
ETH*789. Special Topics. Special Topics course developed by student and mentor on a specific topic in their research area or grant topic.
IP*700. Caring Community Focus on Food. Food, caring for the underserved, nutrition instruction and food insecurity all intersect in this interprofessional class. Through in-class seminars, group activities, service-learning at the CARES Student-run Free Clinic and community screenings, as well as hands on cooking instruction, students will increase their knowledge and capacity to address food insecurity in the underserved population of our community. Students enrolled in this course receive preference for volunteering at CARES clinic in Mt Pleasant and all CARES related events. Prerequisites: Enrolled in graduate level or professional school. 2 s.h.
IP*701. Health Care and the Humanities. In IP 701, Health Care and the Humanities, we explore issues related to health and health care through the arts and humanities as a means of developing critical thinking, reflection, analysis and other skills that contribute to empathetic, patient-centered care. The new structure of the course will allow me to offer special seminars based on themes like women's health, child health, addiction narratives, and disability narratives that appeal to professional students across colleges. 1 s.h.
IP*703. Making Clinical Connections:. The interprofessional course focuses on the concept of writing as a reflective activity and an exercise in professional communication. Students will develop greater listening and reporting skills related to enhanced provider-patient communication. Students will be lead toward creating publishable works and to recognize the value of publishing as a means of interprofessional communication. During the course, students will engage in writing (including an in class journal), participate in small groups and class-wide discussions. A portfolio of work will be developed for the course. 2-2.50 var. s.h.
IP*706. Spanish/Hlth Care Prof-Interme. As a continuation and review of the beginning course, this course has been specially designed for students, nurses, faculty and staff who want to learn basic phrases, grammar, and vocabulary in Spanish related to health care. The areas of focus for the course are the following: (1) beginning conversational Spanish focusing on health, (2) pronunciation and basic grammar, (3) basic vocabulary related to healthcare, and (4) culturally competent care for Hispanic patients. The teaching methods used in the course are based on the communicative approach to language learning; therefore students will be expected to speak in Spanish during each class meeting. Class time will consist of one-on-one conversations, role plays, and dialogues related to the clinical setting, as well as some grammar and pronunciation exercises. Some topics to be covered include the following: assessing medical history and health risks, physical examinations and parts of the body, illnesses and diseases, equipment and locations within the hospital, etc. Also, students will be expected to practice on a weekly basis with a classmate outside of class; this practice is essential for strengthening speaking and listening skills as the course progresses. This course is designed for student with little or no knowledge of Spanish, and for those who have completed the beginning medical Spanish course. Important: Knowledge gained in this course is not meant to replace services provided by medical interpreters at MUSC. 2-2.50 var. s.h.
IP*708. Behind the Scenes. The course gives interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to observe the complex interworking of an academic medical center and to develop 21st century skills to be vital contributors to effective health care. Learners observe the wide variety of individuals and teams required to run a high reliability organization. Students will complete three, 2-hour observations/shadowing experiences of teams or departments across the entire MUSC enterprise. Through an interprofessional context, students also will explore issues related to the health care system, leadership and conflict management, cultural humility, and the Just Culture model. 1 s.h.
IP*709. Interprofess. Patient Support. This elective brings together small interprofessional (IP) teams of students under the supervision of one or more faculty preceptors to provide highly patient-centered care and support services to MUSC patients at risk for hospitalization or re-hospitalization. Working over a semester under supervision, IP student teams assist patients with health care usage and improvement of quality of health care services by assisting in setting individual goals to improve health and quality of life. .50 s.h.
IP*711. IP Foundations & Teamstepps. This course provides the foundation for beginning health professions students to develop competency in interprofessional collaborative practice. The goal of the course is to help prepare future health professionals for enhanced team-based care of patients and improved patient and population health outcomes through evidence-based team strategies and understanding of professional roles and responsibilities. 1 s.h.
IP*712. Caring for the Community. Caring for the Community is an interprofessional course aimed at exposing students to the social and financial resources available within the Charleston area to our patients, in particular those who are uninsured or under-insured. Discussions, debates, panels and small group activities will serve to increase our knowledge as providers, and to better serve our patient population in regard to addressing all of their needs, beyond medical needs only. Topics addressed will include health disparities, population health and cultural factors affecting delivery of healthcare, social determinants of health and community resources. All students enrolled in IP-700 will preferentially be afforded opportunities to rotate through the CARES medical clinic as well as shadowing opportunities in the CARES PT/OT clinic, the ECCO Dental clinics and joint Low Country Food bank-CARES clinic events. 2 s.h.
IP*713. Clarion Case Competition. Course Description This course gives interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to earn course credit for actively participating in the local MUSC CLARION case competition, and for first place winner, national competition in Minnesota in April. MUSC's annual interprofessional CLARION competition will engage students in an interactive case study. Students from different disciplines will have the opportunity to work as a fourperson team to analyze and provide recommendations surrounding an extensive healthcare case dealing with interprofessional issues. Once presented with the case, each team conducts a root cause analysis and presents their analysis, proposal, and business plan to a panel of interprofessional judges that evaluates their analysis in the context of real world standards of practice 2 s.h.
IP*714. Conversational Med. Spanish. This course is designed to allow students to gain a better understanding of the communication process between LEP patients and Medical staff to be able to facilitate visits. During the course, we will review and improve conversational skills of students as well as broaden the student's understanding of the medical Hispanic/Latin American culture. Students will engage in mock conversations of a typical patient's doctor's visit. Student will participate in weekly exercise assignments. This course will be a refresher on conversation practice for those with advanced Spanish understanding. 1 s.h.
IP*715. Impact of Poverty on HC. This course provides an introduction to poverty and healthcare consumerism in an interactive online-course format. This course explores the relationship between poverty and clinical impact on population health in the United States. We will address determinants of health as it relates to healthcare consumerism and health status trajectories for the US population living in poverty. The course is intended to equip the clinical student with the patient management skills necessary to reduce the risks poverty plays in their healthcare outcomes. 3 s.h.
IP*717. Telehealth Teams of the Future. This online course provides health professions students with detailed examination of the use of telehealth processes to transform healthcare, access and delivery. Through an interprofessional context, students will explore clinical, research and educational initiatives currently underway across South Carolina. Students will learn the history and status of telehealth activities, engage with live telehealth learning experiences; understand the use of telehealth to improve healthcare access and population health; explore how team-based and academic/community partnerships care can be used to advance care; and embrace the changing models of care resulting from advancing telehealth technologies. Students get real-world experience with the technologies and processes that make telehealth successful. 3 s.h.
IP*718. Teamworks. The course provides interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to apply knowledge of TeamSTEPPS core principles through 5 or 6-hour observations of a clinical unit. Students will demonstrate reliable observation skills to recognize effective team dynamics in the practice setting and to suggest strategies to overcome barriers. Through an interprofessional context, students also will explore issues related to the health care system, cultural humility, and the Just Culture model. 1 s.h.
IP*719. Hospital Systems. This course gives interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to explore topics related to effective health care systems and process improvement. Working in IP groups, learners will conduct an in-depth analysis and presentation of systems issues as related to clinical and non-clinical health care case scenarios. Through an interprofessional context, students also will explore issues related to the health care system, evidence-based practice or process improvement, the Just Culture model, and health informatics. 1 s.h.
IP*722. Medical Mission International. This course is for students interested in participating in an organized interprofessional medical mission trip or other type of international health program. Through the travel, students are exposed to a cross-cultural and an interprofessional health care experience. Students in various healthcare professions including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dental medicine, allied health professions, rehabilitation sciences, and health administration may participate in a trip or program of their selection. Students will participate in a hands-on, experiential learning program with supervision from preceptors in their professional field of study. Variable credit 2-2.5 var. s.h.
IP*724. Intro to Global and Public Hea. This seminar course introduces students to topics in Public Health in a global context. It will expose learners to a methodology for understanding populations and population health through multiple disciplines. Variable credit 1-3 var. s.h.
IP*729. Focus on Food in Medicine. The course gives interprofessional (IP) learners the opportunity to examine the role of food in medicine and the interplay between nutrition, social determinants, and physical health. Through web-based case studies, assigned readings and hands-on work in a community kitchen, students will learn the basics of nutrition, how dietary patterns impact health status, and how to apply this information to patient care. 1 s.h.
IP*731. Eye Spy At Gibbes Museum. Humanities in Healthcare and Healthcare Education are used to foster patient and healthcare worker self-care and resiliency (i.e., playing a musical instrument or painting for enjoyment and pleasure), but also improve observation and communication skills which are a necessity for delivering compassionate, collaborative care. Through funding from a Medical University of South Carolina SCTR's grant, this interprofessional course allowing 10 students to learn and enhance skills within a museum environment, Gibbes Museum of Art, is available. Eight sessions led by professional art educators and MUSC faculty will be conducted over Spring 2018 and Fall 2018 semesters. Patients and/or caregivers will also participate in some sessions. 1 s.h.
IP*732. History of Health Sciences. This course introduces students to the history of the broad field of health, disease, and medicine through a series of topical lectures. The course begins with the history of the Medical University of South Carolina. Then biographical accounts of important figures in the history of the health professions will flesh out concepts of both the art and the science of practice. Other lectures will highlight revolutionary discoveries and other significant events in the history of the health professions. The course goal is to contribute to professional development by raising students' awareness of their profession's cultural, philosophic, and scientific heritage. Students at any level in all colleges may enroll. There is no exam or term paper; grading will be pass/fail based on attendance at lectures. 1 s.h. Spring.
IP*738. Seminars in Research Ethics. This seminar series expands the range of educational opportunities for students who are interested in clinical research ethics (CRE). It comprises hour-long meetings each week with leaders from MUSC research administration and clinical/translational investigators, each of whom focuses on the relation of their offices and activities to CRE. It is part of a fellowship program that leads to a Certificate in Clinical Research Ethics. This course is available both in classroom and online. Students who are on campus and are taking the course for academic credit are expected to attend the classroom seminar; all others are encouraged to attend if on campus or participate online. 1 s.h.
IP*741. Clinical Care. This course gives interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to explore topics related to effective interprofessional clinical care. Working in IP groups, learners will conduct an in-depth analysis and presentation of clinical care topics related to patient care, technology, and/or cultural issues. Through an interprofessional context, students also will explore issues related to the health care system, population health, patient and family centered care, cultural humility and just culture. 1 s.h.
IP*742. Interprof. Study of Asd-Nd I. Interprofessional Study of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Neurodevelopmental (NDs) Disabilities I course (Fall Semester) offers students the opportunity to gain expertise in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neurodevelopmental disabilities. the course promotes an interprofessional approach to ASD and NDs, with emphasis on the professions of pediatrics, psychology, speech pathology, social work, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, pediatric dentistry, psychiatry, neurology, genetics, special education, and others learning and working together. The course content is based on recommendations made by the AUCD's Interdisciplinary Training Guide (National Training Directors Council, 2001), and the Core MCH Leadership competencies (http://leadership.mchtraining.net/). In addition to training in typical and atypical childhood development, as well as interprofessional training, life course issues, culture competence, public health, access to care, and family centered care are included in course content. There is a specific emphasis on empirically supported assessment and intervention methods for ASD and other NDs. The course is offered on-line, and lectures may be viewed by students on their own time via the on-line learning management system Moodle. The two courses stand alone; Interprofessional Study of ASD-ND I is not a prerequisite for Interprofessional Study of ASD-ND II. 2-2.5 var. s.h.
IP*743. Introduction to 3D Printing. Additive Manufacturing (3-D printing) is ushering in a new era of efficiency, cost-effectiveness and convenience in the health care industry.1 Through innovation and technical advancements, 3D printers are set to provide faster prototyping, ideas, inventive problem-solving, and increased cost efficiency. This course will introduce the potential uses of Additive Manufacturing (3D printing) in health care and provide a process for innovation that encompasses concept development, applied creativity, prototyping, and experimentation. This course also integrates rich, interactive media such as videos, infographics, and e-learning activities as well as traditional components such as live faculty lectures, group projects, and individual assignments. The program design facilitates collaborative learning through discussion forums and a team-based capstone project. This results in an enhanced peer network that delivers value long after the course ends. 1 s.h.
IP*744. Interprof. Study of Asd-Nd II. Interprofessional Study of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Neurodevelopmental (NDs) Disabilities II course (Spring Semester) offers students the opportunity to gain expertise in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neurodevelopmental disabilities. the course promotes an interprofessional approach to ASD and NDs, with emphasis on the professions of pediatrics, psychology, speech pathology, social work, nursing, occupational therapy, physical therapy, pediatric dentistry, psychiatry, neurology, genetics, special education, and others learning and working together. The course content is based on recommendations made by the AUCD's Interdisciplinary Training Guide (National Training Directors Council, 2001), and the Core MCH Leadership competencies (http://leadership.mchtraining.net/). In addition to training in typical and atypical childhood development, as well as interprofessional training, life course issues, culture competence, public health, access to care, and family centered care are included in course content. There is a specific emphasis on empirically supported assessment and intervention methods for ASD and otehr NDs. The course is offered on-line, and lectures may be viewed by students on their own time via the on-line learning management system Moodle. The two courses stand alone; Interprofessional Study of ASD-ND I is not a prerequisite for Interprofessional Study of ASD-ND II. 2-2.5 var. s. h.
IP*745. Community Cooking. Using natural materials of straw, clay and sand, students from multiple disciplines will collaborate with students from the American College of the Building Arts to design and construct a wood-fired (cob) oven in MUSC's Urban Farm. Students will discuss the history and current use of cob ovens in a variety of settings, and debate the benefits and challenges of interprofessional teamwork . Through independent reading and discussions, students will draw conclusions and use research-based evidence to defend their position on the impact of community gardens on health and wellness. Students will participate in 4 3-hour classes constructing the oven and a total of 3 hours in class meetings planning and then hosting an event to demonstrate the oven and how it can be used going forward. 1 s.h.
IP*746. Community Engagement. This course introduces health professions students to basic principles of community engagement for improving community health and wellness through and interprofesional collaborative approach. Students will learn about conducing community asset mapping, community needs assessments, cultural competency, social determinants of health, effective strategies for working with community partners, community-based participatory research principles, dissemination of community health education and interprofessional teamwork. Students will work in interprofessional teams on local community health projects. 2-2.5 var. s.h.
IP*749. Human Cadaver Dissection. This elective course will enhance both dissection and anatomic structure identification skills using human cadavers. Dissection will be performed in the manner of an independent study but under the overall supervision and advisement of the course directors. Approach to dissection will be on a regional basis and will address: 1) back; 2) upper and lower limbs; 3) head and neck; 4) thorax; 5) abdomen, and 6) genitourinary/perineum. 2 s.h.
IP*750. Medical Humanities Research. In this medical humanities elective, each student creates and "independent study" project and participates in an online community of interprofessional learners. Draw on your enthusiasm for the arts, humanities, or social sciences to investigate health and health care from new perspectives. Because of its flexible design, this course is perfect for distance-education students or students completing away rotations as well as for on-campus students. For a syllabus that provides examples of past projects, contact Lisa Kerr at email@example.com. 2-2.50 s.h.
IP*751. Translational Research. This course gives interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to explore topics related to translational research. Working in IP groups, learners will conduct an in-depth analysis and presentation of translational research topics. Through an interprofessional context, students also will explore issues related to the US health system, health informatics, cultural humility, and population health as they relate to bench to bedside topics. 1 s.h.
IP*752. IP Independent Studies. This course promotes students' interprofessional collaborative competencies through focused study on a topic of professional relevance in health are (i.e., research, patient care, administration, community health, etc.). Under direction from the course director, the student will engage in directed readings, interviews with other professions and an interprofessional teamwork project. Students will reflect upon their learning through written reports. 1-2.50 var. s.h.
IP*754. Fundamentals of Teamstepps. This course introduces the participant to the TeamSTEPPS Fundamentals course. TeamSTEPPS is an evidence-based comprehensive teamwork training system designed to improve quality and safety in healthcare and is rooted in over three decades of research in high-stress, high-risk industries such as military aviation. The Fundamentals course is designed for direct patient caregivers and includes tools and strategies specifically designed to improved communications and team-driven outcomes. In addition, the participant will be trained to be a reliable rater of team performance using the TeamSTEPPS Team Performance Observation Tool. 1-3 var. s.h.
IP*756. Integrated Interprofes Studies. Integrated Interprofessional Studies is a 3 credit hr course designed to give students an appreciation for the translational relevance of their dissertation studies through hands-on interprofessional experiences in a clinical setting. Students will select the department that best matches their dissertation work and attend available grand rounds, fellows conferences, departmental seminars, clinical discussion groups (boards), and other available small group conferences or settings within the selected department. Experiences in these activities will be discussed in class. Midway through the semester students will also have the opportunity to attend rounding with the corresponding departmental healthcare team as they visit patients. Students reconvene weekly as a class, with the course instructor, to review and discuss cases they have heard and share their experiences. 3 s.h.
IP*757. Patient-Centered Design. This course gives interprofessional (IP) learners will explore topics related to the patient experience along a health care journey. Working in IP groups, learners will have the opportunity to shadow in multiple hospital departments. Based on their observations, they will engage in biweekly discussions with classmates, patients or families and care team members. Learners will document the current state of the health care journey, and use human-centered design techniques to develop ideas for supportive patient and family experiences in health care. 1 S.H.
IP*758. Prac Based Pt Centered Care. This is a practice-based, patient-centered interprofessional care course. Teams of 2 to 4 students representing at least 2 different disciplines will collaborate with primary care preceptors to engage a panel of of 5 to 6 high risk patients in order to identify barriers to patient access, assess social determinants of health, identify resources and appropriate education materials, and assist in developing processes to address patient specific barriers. 2 s.h.
IP*759. Special Teams for Special Pop. Purpose of this elective course is to improve oral and systemic health care outcomes for patients at the Pamela Kaminsky Clinic for Adolescents and Adults with Special Health Care Needs (SHCN). To achieve this we will use an interprofessional team approach composed of dental, occupational therapy, pharmacy, and physician's assistant (PA) students. Student teams will discuss current medical and dental health, medications, including possible side effects and oral sequelae and will discuss preventative medical and oral health care with patient and/or patient's family or caretakers, increasing their understanding of issues involved in caring for adults with SHCN. 1 S.H.
IP*760. IPC Clinical Fellowship. This course provides students with an interprofessional (IP) educational experience integrating IP practice and education. The Institute for Primary Care (IPC) Clinical Fellowship course will focus on IP collaboration for chronic disease management of uninsured/underserved clients through evidence-based care, health coaching, care coordination, patient education and engagement of community partners. Working within and IP team of students and providers, students will learn with, from and about each other while increasing access to care and addressing the health needs of underserved clients, families and community. 1 s.h.
IP*762. Virtual IP Learning. This course provides students with an innovative, asynchronous interprofessional (IP) educational experience using state-of-the-art avatar technology. The experience will focus on addressing patient care quality and safety and IP communication utilizing avatars for case presentation, analysis, clinical decision-making, team communication and resolution of a significant healthcare event. 1 s.h. Summer. Prerequisites: COM, COP, CON MSN/DNP students.
IP*764. Community-Based Mental Health. Students from multiple disciplines will collaborate together to develop a therapeutic gardening program at a local residential apartment complex designated for individuals with serious mental illness. Residents will be engaged in designing raised beds to plant a summer harvest of vegetables. Students and faculty will be at the site on a weekly basis and residents will be instructed in the daily care of the garden. Emphasis will be on the therapeutic benefits including developing a knowledge and appreciation of healthy eating and cooking, physical activity in the care of the garden, socialization and interaction skills when working together, meaningful use of time and energy, and the enjoyment of harvesting from the land and the positive experience of connecting with nature. 1 s.h.
IP*766. Biomedical Commercialization. The course examines the process of commercializing research results from medical research laboratories. Topics include drug discovery and development, pre-clinical and clinical trials, market assessment for biomedical products, competitive analysis, revenue models and exit strategies. 3 s.h.
IP*768. Public Health. This course gives interprofessional (IP) learners opportunity to explore topics related to public health issues. Working in interprofessional groups, learners will conduct an in-depth analysis and presentation of public health issues as related to clinical and non-clinical health care case scenarios. Through an interprofessional context, students also will explore issues related to rural and population health, cultural humility, oral health and primary care, and health informatics. 1 s.h.
IP*770. Culinary Health and Wellness. Students from multiple disciplines will study how the art of cooking and the science of food intersect to promote health and wellness. Students will become familiar with the science behind the role of nutrition in chronic disease prevention and management and will develop skills on how to select, prepare, cook and present foods that promote health and wellness. The class will combine independent reading and discussion and with hands-on experience in the kitchen. 1 s.h.
IP*772. Team Science in Clinical Resea. The course offers practical guidance about how to best engage in team science to pursue complex scientific questions, work effectively with team members, and produce high impact research outcomes that help meet society's needs. 1 s.h.
IP*774. Intro to Health Literacy & Cul. This course introduces Health Professions students to basic principles of health literacy. The course will focus on the issues of low health literacy; writing in plain language; health communication techniques; cultural competency and social determinants of health. Students will work in interprofessional teams on a group project. 2 s.h.
IP*776. IP Educational Technology. This course provides the opportunity to explore educational technology development and application in an interprofessional collaborative manner. After discussion between the student and faculty supervisor, an independent study project related to educational technology will be outlined and will include participation in the development, application, and/or methodological study on the use of a new or existing technology-related educational resource. Projects may also include a thorough literature review of a topic participation in a research experiment, professional presentation, and/or the learning of a new instructional design method/strategy. Topics will be selected that have application and interest to more than one discipline. 1 s.h.
IP*777. Pediatric Mini-Fellowship. This elective course will provide students with an embedded experiential learning opportunity in a community school or daycare setting. Interprofessional groups of students will work 1 on 1 with a child having medical complexity. 1 s.h.
IP*778. Cultural Caring. This course is designed to give graduate students the opportunity to engage in interprofessional discussion and community-based activities to learn more about health care delivery with underserved communities. The course will focus primarily on service delivery and clinical practice working with patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) through development of language skills, cultural competence, and strategies to enhance access to care. Topics of discussion throughout the course will include cultural and linguistically-appropriate standards, considerations with limited English proficiency (LEP), health literacy, access to care, and resources for healthcare and clinical practice. 1 s.h.
IP*779. Culturally Sensitive Care. This course will educate students in culturally sensitive care using the framework of the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS) Standards published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) Office of Minority Health. Sessions will incorporate guest expert lectures, discussion groups, and community-based assignments to cover topics such as culturally responsive care, language access, organizational policies and practices, community design and implementation, and health equity. 1 s.h.